Uniquely, alongside game chapters on normal cognitive function, there are chapters on related clinical disorders (agnosia, amnesia, thought disorder and books aphasia) which help to provide a thorough insight into the twelve nature of cognition.
Retinal image A proximal stimulus for vision, consisting of the projection of light embedded waves reflected from stimuli and projected to a surface indexdat at the back of the eye.Primacy effect The improvement in reader retention of information learned at the beginning of a task.Knowledge-based view of concepts The idea that full embedded concepts function in animator relation to their instances as a scientific theory does to data supporting.Tacit knowledge People's underlying and implicit beliefs about a task windows or event.Computerized axial tomography (CAT, or CT) scan An windows imaging technique in which a highly focused beam of X-rays is passed through the body from many different angles.Elimination-by-aspects strategy In decision making, the elimination of alternatives that exceed a threshold value on one or more dimensions.Affordance A perceptual windows property of objects, embedded places, and events twelve that makes clear what actions or behaviors on the part of the perceiver are permitted in interaction with the object, place, or event.Exhaustive search A search for information in which each item in a set is examined, even after the target is found.Cerebral cortex The surface of the cerebrum, the largest structure of the brain, containing both sensory and motor nerve cell bodies.Cerebellum Part of the brain that controls balance and muscular coordination.Icon A sensory memory for visual stimuli.An approach to the study of cognition emphasizing the natural contexts or settings in which cognitive activities occur, and the influences such settings have in the ways in which cognitive activities are acquired, practiced, and executed.Executive functioning Cognitive processes including planning, making decisions, implementing strategies, inhibiting inappropriate behaviors, and using working memory to process information.Cue overload A principle of memory that states a retrieval cue will be converter most effective when it is highly distinctive and not related to any other target memories.Also called "data-driven" process.Naturalistic observation A research paradigm in which an observer observes participants in familiar, everyday contexts while ideally remaining as unobtrusive as possible.Coding The form in which information is mentally or internally represented.Multiattribute utility theory (maut) A normative model of decision making that provides a means of integrating different dimensions and goals of a complex decision. Schema An organized framework for representing knowledge that typically includes characters, plots, and settings, and incorporates both general knowledge about the world and information about particular events.
Broca's aphasia Also called expressive or motor aphasia; symptoms of this organic disorder include difficulty in speaking, using grammar, and finding appropriate words.
Levels-of-processing theory of memory An alternative to the modal view of memory, proposed by Craik and Lockhart, that postulates that memory depends not on a particular memory store but on the initial processing done to the information at the time of acquisition.

Sunk cost effect A bias in decision making in which already "spent" costs unduly influence decisions on whether to continue.
Reasoning is often seen as a special kind of thinking.
Working backward A problem-solving technique that identifies the final goal and the steps, in reverse order, that are necessary to reach the goal.

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